第六节-时态与语态

时态

时态

动词形式

原型 单三 过去式 进行式 过去分式 非谓语
do does did doing done to do
be is was being been to be
have has had having had to have
will will would will will will
谓语 谓语 谓语 非谓语 非谓语 非谓语

时态表

方式/时间 现在 过去 将来 过去将来
一般 ask/asks asked shall/will ask should/would ask
进行 am/is/are asking was/were asking shall/will be asking should/would be asking
完成 have/has asked had asked shall/will have asked should/would have asked
完成进行 have/has been asking had been asking shall/will have been asking should/would have been asking

一般现在时

形式:主语+动词原形/单三

  1. 表示经常性或习惯性的动作或存在的状态。常与表示频度的时间状语连用,如always, often, usually, generally, sometimes, rarely, never, once a week, twice a month, every day, now and then(偶尔)等。

    • Little children always fight among themselves.

      小孩子之间总是打斗。

    • They go to the movies once a week to relax themselves.

      他们每周去看一次电影来放松自己。

    • I see him now and then, but not often.

      我偶尔看见他,但不常见。

  2. 表示主语的特征、状态、能力、品质等。

    • People enjoy reading books about the rich and the famous.

      人们喜欢阅读有关富人和名人的书。

    • The foreign man standing in the doorway speaks Chinese.

      站在门口的那位外国男士会将中中文。

  3. 表示格言、客观事实或普遍真理

    • A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush.

      一鸟在手胜过双鸟在林。

    • The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.

      太阳东升西落。

    • As we all know, the earth travels around the sun.

      众所周知,地球绕着太阳转。

    误区警示

    宾语从句的时态一般应和主句时态保持一致,但当宾语从句是表达客观事实或规律的句子时,其时态可以不受主句时态的限制,要用一般现在时。如:

    • The teacher told his students that light travels much faster than sound.(主句是过去式,从句是一般现在式)

      那个老师告诉他的学生们,光比声音的传播速度快得多。

    考点链接

    He proved that the earth __ round.

    A. is B .was C. has been D. had been

    翻译:他证明了地球是圆的。

    精析:A 分析句子结构可知,proved后面是一个that引导得宾语从句,从句的时态一般应和主句保持一致,但是“地球是圆的”是客观事实,所以从句应用一般现在时。故选A。

  4. 表示安排或计划好的将要发生的动作,或表示时间表将要发生的动作,句中常有一个表示时间的状语。常用的动词有:be, arrive, come , go ,start, begin, leave, return, end, stop 等。

    • The new project starts on the first day of May.

      新项目将于5月1号启动。

    • The concert begins at 7:00 p.m. and ends at 9:30 p.m.

      音乐会将于晚上7点开始,9点30分结束。

  5. 在时间或条件状语从句中,用一般现在时代替一般将来时

    • We will discuss the matter when we meet tomorrow.

      明天见面时,我们将会讨论这件事。

    • I will not go to the countryside if it rains tomorrow.

      如果明天下雨,我就不去乡下了。

    特别提示

    在时间或条件状语从句中,若主句为一般将来时,从句常用一般现在时表示将来,及遵循“主将从现”的原则。

    考点链接

    I will tell him the news as soon as I meet him.

    A. met B. meet C. will meet D. have met.

    翻译:一见到他,我就会把这个消息告诉他。

    精析:B 分析句子结构可知,as soon as(一……就……)引导了一个时间状语从句。根据主句的谓语动词will tell可知,主句为一般将来时,从句应用一般现在时表示将来,即遵循“主将从现”的原则。故选B。

一般过去时

形式:主语+动词的过去式

表示过去某个特定时间或某一段时间内发生的动作或存在的状态。常与表示特定过去时间的状语,如 a moment/three days ago, last night/Friday/week/month/year, (the day before) yesterday, in 1994, in the Tang Dynasty等连用。

  • He and his friends visited the Gread Wall last year.

    去年他和他的朋友参观了长城。

  • The boy didn’t play basketball yesterday afternoon.

    这个男孩昨天下午没有打篮球。

特别提示

一般过去时可以表示在过去时间内经常性或习惯性的动作或存在的状态,还可以表示没有具体的过去时间的动作或存在的状态。如:

  • When I was in the countryside, I often walked by the riverside.

    我在乡下时经常到河边散步。

  • Could you please repeat your name? I didn’t quite catch it.

    您能再重复一下您的姓名吗?我(刚刚)没听清楚。

考点链接

——Hi, I’m Peter, Are you new here? I haven’t seen you ever.

——Hello, Peter, I’m Bob. I ____ here on Monday.

A. come B. have come C. came D. had come

翻译:——你好,我是彼得。你是新来的吗?我从未见过你。

​ ——你好,彼得。我是鲍勃。我周一来这里的。

精析:C 根据句意及答句中的时间状语 on Monday 可知,答句表示在过去某个特定时间发生的动作,所以应用一般过去时。故选C。

一般将来时

形式:

  1. 主语+will/shall+动词原形
  2. 主语+be going to +动词原形
  3. 主语+ be + 动词不定式
  4. 主语+ be about + 动词不定式
  5. 主语+ be + 现在分词(仅限位移动词)

用法

  1. “shall/will+动词原形”一般表示将要发生的动作或存在的状态。shall用于第一人称,will可用于第一、二、三人称。

    • My elder brother will twenty years old next year.

      我的哥哥明年就二十岁了。

  2. “be going to + 动词原形”表示主观打算做某事或有迹象表明即将发生某事。

    • They are going to sail around the small island.

      他们打算绕着小岛航行。

    • It is very cloudy. I think it is going to rain soon.

      天阴阴的,我想快要下雨了。

  3. “be+动词不定式”常表示按安排、计划、约定、职责、义务或要求将要发生的动作。

    • The Prime Minister is to visit China tomorrow.

      首相将于明天访问中国。

    • You assignment is to be handed in next Tuesday.

      你的作业下周必须上交。

    考点链接

    You ___ to that hotel where rooms have already been booked for you.

    A. went B. are to go C. go D. about to go

    翻译:你们将要去那家宾馆,已经为你们预订好房间了。

    精析:B 根据句意可知,此处表示按照安排将要发生的事情,所以应用“be+动词不定式”的形式,B项符合题意。A项表示一般过去时;C项表示一般现在时;D项形式不正确,若改为 are about to go,也可以表示即将发生的动作。故选B。

  4. “be about+动词不定式”表示即将发生的动作,不可与表示将来的时间状语连用。

    • The team is about to play an important match.

      这支队伍将要进行一场重要的比赛。

    • We are about to leave, so there is no time to visit her now.

      我们要走了,所以现在没有时间去拜访她。

    特别提示

    be on the point of doing 也可表示即将发生某事,意为“正要/即将做……”。如:

    She is on the point of bursting into tears.她就要哭了。

  5. ”be+现在分词(仅限位移动词)“常表示在不久的将来要做某事,或按计划、安排将要发生某事。常见的这类动词有:go, come, leave, start, begin, arrive等。

    • I’m going to John’s house at four on next Sunday afternoon.

      下周日的下午四点我将要去约翰的家。

    • He is leaving school in one year’s time.

      他一年后就要毕业了。

  6. ”祈使句+and/or——陈述句“结构中,前面的祈使句部分表示条件,而and/or后面的句子应用一般将来时。如果前后是顺承关系,常用and连接;如果前后是转折关系,常用or连接,也可用otherwise或or else。

    • Give me one more hour, and I’ll get the work finished.

      再给我一个小时,我就能完成这项工作。

    • Close the window, or you’ll catch a cold.

      关上窗户,不然你会感冒的。

    考点链接

    Bring there flowers into a warm room and they _ soon.

    A. will open B. are opening C. open D. have opened

    翻译:把这些花带到一个温暖的房间,它们很快就会开放。

    精析:A ”祈使句+and+陈述句“结构中,前面的祈使句部分表示条件,而and后面的句子常表示结果,应用一般将来时。故选A。本题容易吴选B项,”be+现在分词(仅限位移动词)“也可表示将要发生的事情,但open在此意为”开放“,不是位移动词,常见的位移动词有:go, come, leave, start等。

现在进行时

形式:主语+am/is/are+现在分词

用法:

  1. 表示现在、目前或现阶段正在进行的动作或发生的事情。

    • We are waiting for you at the school gate now.

      我们现在正在校门口等你。

    • Today the number of people learning English in China is increasing rapidly.

      如今,在中国学习英语的人数正在迅速增长。

  2. 与 always, forever, constantly 等副词连用,表示某种感情,如赞许、厌烦、不满、同情等。

    • The little boy is always thinking of others.(赞许)

      那个小男孩总是为别人着想。

    • He is always making trouble for his friends.(不满)

      他总是给他的朋友们制造麻烦。

    知识扩展

    下列动词(短语)不能用于进行时态:

    1. 表示感情状态,如love, enjoy, like, hate, resent等;
    2. 表示感知、感觉,如see,hear,taste,smell,appear,look, sound等;
    3. 表示理解、思考心理活动,如doubt, know, remember, believe,forget,understand等;
    4. 表示存在的状态,如exist,stay,remain,obtain等;
    5. 表示所属关系,如have(有),form,belong to,own,possess,consist of等。

过去进行时

形式:主语+was/were+动词分词

用法:

  1. 表示过去某一时刻或某段时间内正在进行的动作。

    • I was reading a novel when you called me last night.

      昨晚你给我打电话时,我正在读一本小说。

    • He was making a long distance call from nine to ten last night.

      昨晚9点到10点间他一直在打长途电话。

将来进行时

形式:主语+shall/will be+现在分词

用法:

  1. 表示在将来某一时刻或某段时间内正在进行的动作,或按计划在将来某一时刻或某段时间内将要进行的动作。

    • This time tomorrow we shall be working in that factory.

      明天的那个时候,我们将正在那个工厂干活。

    • This time next week we will be lying on the beach of Sanya.

      下星期的这个时候,我们将正躺在三亚的沙滩上。

考点链接

I am making a model plane. I ___ it in the science class this time tomorrow afternoon.

A. will be showing B. am going to show C. show D. showed

翻译:我正在做一架飞机模型。明天下午的这个时候我将正在科学课上展示它。

精析:A 根据第二句中的时间状语 this time tomorrow afternoon(明天下午的这个时候)可知,本句应用将来进行时,即谓语动词用”shall/will be+现在分词“的形式,表示将来某一时候或某段时间内正在进行的动作。故选A。

现在完成时

形式:主语+have/has+过去分词

用法:

  1. 表示已经做完某事,强调过去所发生的动作或事情对现在的影响或产生的结果,着眼于现在。

    常与不确定的时间状语连用,如 yet, already, just, before, recently, once, lately等;也可与表示频度的时间状语连用,如 often, ever, never, sometimes, twice等。

    • The company has already shed 10,000 employees.

      该公司已经裁减了一万人。

    • I have just copied all the new words.

      我刚刚抄写完了所有的生词。

    • I have never heard Bonnie say anything against you.

      我从未听过邦尼说过你的坏话。

考点链接

I ___ reading the book yet, so I won’t return it to the library.

A. will not finish B. didn’t finish C. am not finishing D. haven’t finished

翻译:我还没有读完这本书,因此我不会把他还给图书馆。

精析:D 根据句意和句中的时间状语yet可知,逗号前的分句应用现在完成时,即谓语动词应用“have/has+过去分词”的形式,表示过去发生的动作或对现在产生影响,着眼于现在。根据逗号后面分句的句意“因此我不会把它还给图书馆”可知,前面的分句应用否定形式,即谓语动词用“have/has not+过去分词。故选D。

  1. 表示过去的某一动作或行为一直持续到现在,而且还有可能延续下去。

    常与表示一段时间的状语连用,如 so far(到目前为止), up to now(到目前为止),until now(到目前为止)), (ever)since(自从), for a long time(长时间), for/in/over the past few years(过去的几年里), these (few) days/weeks/months/years(几天/周/月/年后)等。

    • Up to now, we haven’t received any news from her.

      到目前为止,我们还没有收到她的任何消息。

    • I have been very sad for the past few months.

      在过去的几个月里,我一直很伤心。

特别提示

since引导的时间状语从句常用一般过去时,主句常用现在完成时。如:

  • The Greens have lived in Beijing since they came to China.

    格林一家自从来到中国后就一直住在北京。

考点链接

  1. All of my students ____ rapid progress in the past few years.

    A. make B. are making C. made D. have made

    翻译:在过去的几年里,我所有的学生都取得了快速的进步。

    精析:D 根据句意和句中的时间状语”in the past few years”(在过去的几年里)可知,本句应用现在完成时,即谓语动词用”have/has+过去分词“的形式,表示过去的行为一直持续到现在,而且还有可能延续下去。故选D。

  2. We ____ good friends since we were very young.

    A. are B. have been C. were D. had been

    翻译:从很小的时候开始我们就是好朋友了。

    精析:B 根据句意和时间状语从句 since we were very young(从我们很小的时候)可知,主句应用现在完成时,即谓语动词用”have/has+过去分词“的形式,表示动作从过去一直持续到现在,而且还有可能延续下去。故选B。

现在完成时可用于下列结构中:

  1. 在”This/That/It is the+序数词+time+(that)从句“结构中,从句应用现在完成时,表示”某物/某人第几次做某事“。

    • It is the second time that Jack has met the girl.

      这是杰克第二次遇见那个女孩儿。

    • This is the first time that the painting has been displayed to the public.

      这是该画首次公开展出。

  2. 在”This/That/It is the best/worst/most/only……(+adj.)+ n. +(that)从句“结构中,从句要用现在完成时。

    • It is the most interesting film that I have ever seen.

      这是我看过的最有趣的电影。

    • This is the easiest job that I’ve ever had.

      这是我干过的最容易的工作。

过去完成时

形式:主语+had+过去分词

用法:

  1. 表示过去某个时间或某个动作之前已经完成的动作,或者表示从过去某个时间一直延续到过去另一个时间的动作。它表示动作的时间是”过去的过去“。这个过去的时间常用含by,before,by the end of等的介词短语或by the time等引导一个时间状语从句来表示,也可以用一个过去的动作或通过上下文来表示。

    • I had just finished half of the work by yesterday.

      截止到昨天,我只完成了一半的工作。

    • They had got everything ready before I came.

      在我来之前,他们已经把一切都准备好了。

    • By the time they finished the job, it had been too late.

      他们完成这项工作时,已经太晚了。

    • She found that she had left her luggage on the bus.

      她发现自己把行李落在了公共汽车上。

特别提示

intend, mean, plan, hope, wish, want, think, expect等表示”打算、计划、希望、试图、认为“等含义的动词用于过去完成时,表示”本打算(本计划、本希望、本认为)做……而未做“。如:

  • I had planned to be back last night, but I didn’t catch the train.

    我本打算昨晚回来的,但我没赶上火车。

考点链接

  1. I ___ at the bus stop for 20 minutes when a bus came.

    A. have being B. were C. had been D. have been

    翻译:当公共汽车来的时候,我已经在公共汽车站等了20分钟了。

    精析:C 根据句意和句中的came可知,”我在公共汽车站等20分钟“发生在”公共汽车来“之前,即动作发生在”过去的过去“,所以主句应用过去完成时,即谓语动词用”had+过去分词“的形式。故选C。

  2. By the end of last week he __ two papers.

    A. has finished B. finishes C. finished D. had finished

    精析:D 根据句意和句中的时间状语By the end of last week(截至到上周末)可知,“完成两篇论文”这一动作发生在”过去的过去“,所以本句应用过去完成时,即谓语动词应用”had+过去分词“的形式,表示过去某个时间之前已经完成的动作。故选D。

知识扩展

过去完成时的常考句型:

  1. 在Hardly/Scarcely(惊吓地)……when或No sooner……than(一……就) 句型中,从句应用一般过去时,主句应用过去完成时。如:

    • Hardly had he begun to speak when the audience interrupted him.

      他刚开始演讲,听众就打断了他。

  2. 在”It was+一段时间+since从句”句型中,从句应用过去完成时,从句中的谓语动词一般为短暂动词。如:

    • It was at least three months since I had left Beijing.

      我离开北京至少有三个月了。

将来完成时

形式:主语+shall/will have+过去分词

用法:

  1. 表示在将来某时之前或某动作之前已经完成的动作。

    • I shall/will have finished the job by next Friday.

      我将在下星期五以前完成这项工作。

    • They will have graduated from the university before next year.

      他们将在明年以前从大学毕业。

    • I shall/will have moved into the new house by the end of this week.

      我将在本周末之前搬进新房子。

考点链接

The workers __ the new project by the end of this year.

A. shall complete B. will have completed C. have completed D. have been completing

翻译:到今年年底,工人门将完成这项新工程。

精析:B 根据句中的时间状语 by the end of this year(到今年年底)可知,本句应用完成时,即谓语动词应用”will/shall have+过去分词“的形式,表示到将来某个时间为止已经完成的动作。故选B。

  1. 表示一个持续到将来某事或某动作发生之前的动作。

    一般来说,如果句中出现了”by + 将来时间“构成的时间状语,就应用将来完成时。

    • By next Monday, she will have studied here for three years.

      到下周一,她将在这里学习满三年。

    • The concert will begin at half past eight. They will have played for half an hour when you arrive.

      音乐会八点半开始。你到的时候他们已经演奏了半个小时了。

考点链接

By the time you arrive in Shanghai, we ___ in Sanya for there weeks.

A. shall stay B. will have stayed C. have stayed D. have been staying

翻译:等你到底上海时,我们蒋已在三亚待了三周了

精析:B 分析句子结构可知,By the time(到……时候)引导了一个时间状语从句,从句用一般现在时表将来,所以主句应用将来完成时,即谓语动词应用”will/shall have+过去分词“的形式,表示stay这一动作持续到将来某时。故选B。

知识拓展

by the time意为”到……时候(为止)“,可用作连词引导时间状语从句,其主要用法如下:

  1. 如果从句是一般过去时,那么主句通常用过去完成时,表示”截止到从句动作(表示过去)发生时,主句动作已经完成“或”主句动作持续到从句动作(表示过去)发生之前“,即主句动作发生在”过去的过去“。如:

    • By the time he returned home, the rain had stopped.

      他回家时,雨已经停了。

  2. 如果从句是一般现在时(表示将来),那么主句常用将来完成时,表示”截止到从句动作(表示将来)发生时,主句动作已经完成“或”主句动作持续到从句动作(表示将来)发生之前“。如:

    • By the time you get back, I will have finished the housework.

      你回来的时候,我已经做完家务了。

现在完成进行时

形式:主语+have/has been+现在分词

用法:**

  1. 表示从过去某一时间一直延续到现在的动作,这个动作可能刚刚结束,或者可能还要继续进行下去;或表示重复性的动作。

    • I have been waiting for an hour, but he still hasn’t turned up.

      我已经等了一个小时了,但他还是没来。

    • I have been speaking to my friends in Portuguese since I came here.

      自从我来这里以来,我一直用葡萄牙语和朋友们交谈。

特别提示

现在完成进行时中多用延续性动词,如 live,learn, lie, stay, sit, wait, stand, rest, study等,且常与all this time, this week, this month, all the morning, recently等时间状语,for所引出的短语以及since(自从)所引出的短语或从句连用。

考点链接

The secretary ___ reports all the afternoon, but there are still two reports to finish.

A. is typing B. had typed C. typed D. has been typing

翻译:那个秘书整个下午都在打报告,但还有两份报告未完成。

精析:D 根据句意和句中的时间状语 all the afternoon(整个下午)可知,逗号前面的分句应用现在完成进行时,即谓语动词用”have/has+been+现在分词“的形式,表示从过去某一时间开始一直持续到现在的动作,而且可能还将继续下去。故选D。

过去完成进行时

形式:主语+had been+现在分词

用法:

  1. 表示过去某个时间之前一直在进行的动作或存在的状态。

    • I didn’t know you had been waiting for me.

      我不知道你(当时)一直在等我。

    • He had been studying English before he entered the college.

      他进大学前一直在学英语。

误区警示

过去完成进行时的用法与现在完成进行时的用法基本相同,只是时间参照点不同。过去完成进行时以”过去的过去“为时间参照点,而现在完成进行时以“过去”为时间参照点。

过去将来时

形式:主语+would/should+动词原形

用法:

  1. 表示过去某时看来将要发生的动作或存在的状态。

    • She said her mother would come to see her the next day.

      她说她妈妈第二天会来看她。

    • She hoped that they would meet again someday.

      她希望有一天他们能再见面。

特别提示

“主语+was/were+现在分词(仅限位移动词)”也可以表示过去将要发生的动作。如:

  • She told me she was leaving for Beijing the next day.

    她告诉我她第二天要去北京。

被动语态

英语有两种语态,即主动语态和被动语态。主动语态表示主语时动作的执行者,如:She takes care of the little boy.被动语态表示主语是动作的承受者,如:The little boy is taken care of by her.

被动语态的用法

  1. 当不知道或没有必要指出动作的执行者时。

    • Printing was introduced into Europe from China.

      印刷术是从中国传入欧洲的。

    • A lot of money is spent treating the little boy every day.

      每天花很多钱治疗这个小男孩。

  2. 强调或突出动作的承受者时。

    • The three-year plan was successfully carried out.

      三年计划顺利实施。

    • Many houses were destroyed in the war.

      很多房子在战争中被毁掉了。

知识拓展

不能使用被动语态的情况:

  1. 不及物动词(词组)不用于被动语态,如 appear, die, happen, lie(躺,位于),remain, occur, come true, break out, take place等。如:

    • A fire broke out in the forest.
  2. 表示“静态”的动词(词组)不用于被动语态,如 last,hold, benefit, contain, dislike, join, mean, look like, consist of, have, own, possess, belong to ,feel like, lack, cost, equal, become, suffer等。如:

    • Each ball game lasts about an hour.

      每场棒球比赛持续大约一个小时。

    • A healthy diet should consist of wholefood.

      健康饮食应由全天然食物构成。

常用的十种被动语态

被动语态的基本构成:主语+be+及物动词的过去分词。

动词的执行者由介词by引出,往往可以省略。被动语态时动词的一种形式,有时态、人称和数的变化,这种变化体现在be动词上。英语常用的十种被动语态如下表所示(以ask为例):

常用被动语态 构成 常用被动语态 构成
一般现在时 am/is/are asked 现在完成时 have/has been asked
一般过去时 was/were asked 过去完成时 had been asked
一般将来时 shall/will be asked 将来完成时 shall/will have been asked
现在进行时 am/is/are being asked 过去将来完成时 should/would have been asked
过去进行时 was/were being asked 过去将来时 should/would be asked
  1. 一般现在时:主语+am/is/are+过去分词

    • Smokers are warned that smoking is harmful to their health.

      吸烟的人被警告吸烟有害健康。

    • English is now used as a foreign or second language in South Asia.

      在南亚,英语现在被用作外语或第二语言。

  1. 一般过去时:主语+was/were+过去分词

    • They were given some books last week.

      上周他们被赠予了一些书。

    • After my talk, I was asked to explain a point I had made.

      我的演讲结束后,有人请我解释我的观点。

  1. 一般将来时:主语+shall/will be+过去分词

    • The new traffic laws will be strictly enforced next month.

      新的交通法将在下个月严格执行。

  1. 现在进行时:主语+am/is/are being+过去分词

    • The traffic accident is being looked into.

      交通事故正在调查中。

    • The project is being discussed at the meeting.

      这个项目正在会议上讨论。

  1. 过去进行时:主语+was/were being+过去分词

    • The hospital was being built when I came last time.

      上次我来的时候医院正在建。

特别提示

“am/is/are going to be+过去分词”也可以表示一般将来时的被动语态。如:

  • Your watch is going to be repaired in an hour.

    一个小时后给你修表。

  1. 现在完成时:主语+have/has been+过去分词

    • Many new buildings have been completed in the city.

      这座城市许多新建筑物都已竣工。

    • Tom’s paper has not been finished yet.

      汤姆的论文还没写完。

考点链接

  1. Several occupational schools __ already to help local people acquire skills so that they can find a suitable job.

    A. have set up B. have been set up C. set up D. are set up

    翻译:几个职业学校已经被建立起来了,来帮助当地人获得技能,以便他们可以找到合适的工作。

    精析:B 根据句意和主句中的时间状语 already 可知,主句应用现在完成时,表示动作已经完成。另外,Several occupational schools和 set up之间为逻辑上的动宾关系,所以应用被动语态,即谓语动词应用“have/has+been+过去分词”的形式。故选B。

  2. More patients __ in the hospital this year than last year.

    A. treated B. have treated C. had been treated D. have been treated

    翻译:今年这家医院比去年医治了更多的病人。

    精析:D 根据句意和句中的时间状语this year可知,本句应用现在完成时,表示过去发生的动作对现在仍有影响,着眼于现在。又因patients和treat之间为逻辑上的动宾关系,所以应用现在完成时的被动语态,即谓语动词用”have/has been+过去分词“的形式。故选D。

  1. 过去完成时:主语+had been+过去分词

    • He had been warded not to tell anyone about the thing.

      他被警告不要告诉任何人这件事。

    • All the tickets had been sold out when they arrived.

      他们到达时,所以的票都已经售完了。

考点链接

When the firefighters arrived, the fire _ .

A. was put out B. has been put out C. had put out D. had been put out

翻译:消防队员到达时,火已经被扑灭了。

精析:D 根据句意可知,”火被扑灭“发生在”过去的过去“。又因fire和put out之间为逻辑上的动宾关系,所以主句应用过去完成时的被动语态,即谓语动词用”had been+过去分词“的形式。故选D。

  1. 将来完成时:主语+shall/will have/has been +过去分词

    • The design will have been completed by the end of this week.

      这项设计将在本周末完成。

    • The work will have been finished by this time tomorrow.

      明天这个时候这项工作就完成了。

考点链接

all the roads here ____ by the end of next month.

A. will have been widened B. will have widened C. had widened D. had been widened

翻译:到下个月底,这里所有的道路将已全部拓宽。

精析:A 根据句中的时间状语by the end of next month(到下个月底)可知,本句应用将来完成时,表示到将来某个时间为止已经完成的动作。根据句意可知,All the roads和widen(拓宽)之间为逻辑上的动宾关系,所以应用将来完成时的被动语态,即谓语动词用”shall/will have been+过去分词“的形式。

  1. 过去将来完成时:主语+should/would have been+过去分词

    • Our English teacher said that Book One would have been finished by the end of this term.

      我们的英语老师说到本学期末第一册书将会学完。

  1. 过去将来时:主语+should/would be+过去分词

    • He said that this dream would be realized someday.

      他说他的梦想有一天会实现的。

Thank you for your accept. mua!
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